Engaging With Islam

Ministry Of Grace Evangelistic Resources

A Series of Answers to Common Questions and Claims
By Sam Shamoun

Volume One

1. If Jesus is God ... how can God die? (Who was running the universe those three
days that Jesus was dead?)
2. If Jesus is God ... was he praying to himself?
3. Since Jesus has a God, how can he be God himself?
4. Is Jesus God because he did mighty miracles?
5. Jesus says that the Father is greater than he is, proving that he is not God.
6. Jesus said that all authority was given to him, ... which means that Jesus cannot
be God.
7. How can Jesus be God, when he calls the Father the only true God?
8. If Yahweh alone is the Creator, and Jesus a servant sent by him, how can Jesus
be God?
9. How can Jesus be God when he will be in eternal subjection?
10. How can Jesus be God when he denies being all-powerful?
11. Jesus wept, slept, was hungry and thirsty, but God never sleeps, thirsts or
12. Did Jesus become the Son of God only through his virgin birth?
13. The Bible says that God cannot be tempted, yet Jesus is said to have been
tempted ...
14. If Jesus really is God how could Satan tempt him?
15. How can Jesus be God when he says that only God is good?

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Volume Two

16. Whoever is good, is also God?
17. How can Jesus be God when the Hebrew Bible says God is not a man?
18. God has many sons who are not divine. Why then would Jesus be?
19. Since God cannot change, but Jesus did, how can he be God?
20. Why did the Son die? (If God so loved
22. God spoke through his Son only "in these last days", thus he could not have
been the Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament
23. Jesus allegedly emptied himself of Deity, which is impossible for God to do
24. What does it mean that Jesus was made Lord?
25. How can Jesus be God if he is given the name Lord only at his exaltation?
26. Does being called "Kyrios" really imply Deity?
27. Is the Savior necessarily God?
28. Doesn't Jesus' calling "belief that God is One" the greatest command disprove
that he believed in the Trinity?
29. Doesn't the Bible (also) present Melchizedek as possessing divine attributes?

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Volume Three

30. Paul says there is only one God, and that is the Father, this means that Jesus is
not God.
31. Since the Bible states that God has never been seen, Jesus cannot be God! [Part
1], [Part 2]
32. Doesn't Jesus say that the Spirit does not know everything? How can he then be
33. Did God want Christ's followers to be called Christians?
34. Why did Jesus curse the fig tree for not bearing fruit, although it was not even
fig season?
35. Did Jesus deny the ascension of Elijah and Enoch?
36. Did the Jews Misunderstand Jesus?
37. Jesus' Authority To Forgive Sins
38. Does the Apostles' ability to forgive sins imply their deity, too?
39. Since Baptism is "for the forgiveness of sins", does that not imply that Jesus
was a sinner?
40. What about God commanding the annihilation of the Amalekites?
41. Why did Matthew not record even a single one of Jesus' "I AM" Sayings which
are found in John's Gospel?
42. Why did Jesus never say, "I am God, and there is none else"?
43. Was Jesus a created being after all?
44. The authenticity and implications of the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19
45. A Misquotation of the Old Testament in the New Testament?

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Volume Four

46. Did Paul slander the Law?
47. Did Jesus claim that salvation comes from observing the Law?
48. Doesn't Ezekiel 18 show that God does not require perfect obedience but
expects us to sin?
49. God's Promise to Abraham's Offspring: Singular or Plural?
50. Doesn't the Bible degrade women, placing them on the level of animals and
51. Should or should we not trust a/the son of man?
52. How can the Bible be inspired when it contains passages that are merely Paul's
personal opinion?
53. Isn't Muhammad "that prophet" awaited by the Jews?
54. Wasn't Muhammad announced by John the Baptist?
55. If being called God proves that Jesus is the Almighty wouldn't the same hold for
56. What about 2 Corinthians 4:4?
57. Muhammad in the Bible
58. The Sonship of Christ: Eternal or Temporal?
59. The New Testament Documents and the Historicity of the Resurrection

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Christian Answers to Muslim Charges
By Sam Shamoun

Charge #1

In John 8:40, Jesus declares to the Jews, "But now you seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham." The Greek term for man, anthropos, implies one who is absolutely human, distinct from God and animals. This would in effect eliminate the divinity of Jesus, proving that Christ was only human.

Charge #2

Numbers 23:19 states that "God is not a man that he should lie, or a son of man that he should repent." Yet, Jesus was both man and son of man. (Cf. Matthew 16:13)

Charge #3

Exodus 33:20 clearly shows that no one can see God and live, and yet Jesus was seen by many.

Charge #4

Job 25:4 records that a man born of a woman cannot be clean before God, a statement reiterated in 15:14. Jesus was born of a woman and impure before God, and therefore cannot be God.

Charge #5

In Mark 2:1-12, Jesus forgives a paralytic's sins without having to die for that man. This affirms that Christ's death in place of sinners was unnecessary and unbiblical. Furthermore, Christians often use this text as proof that Jesus is God since God alone forgives sins. But in John 20:22 we are told that the disciples were given authority to forgive sins as well. Are they God as well?

Charge #6

Jesus Christ in John 13:16 states that a "servant is not greater than his lord; neither he who is sent is greater than he who sends him." Since God sent Christ, the latter cannot possibly be equal to the Father.

Charge #7

1 Corinthians 11:3 teaches that the head of Christ is God, making Jesus less than true deity, and therefore inferior to God.

Charge #8

1 Corinthians 15:28 is another passage that shows that Christ is not God since he is made subject to the Father for all eternity.

Charge #9

Luke 2:52 states that "Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." This passages shows that Jesus is distinct from God, which makes it impossible for him to be God. Furthermore, Christ is said to have grown in wisdom and stature. Yet, God does not grow since He is immutable.

Charge #10

John 17:3 indicates that the Father alone is the only true God, which means that Jesus Christ is not the true God.

Charge #11

In Acts 2:22, the Apostle Peter declares that Jesus is nothing more than a man sent from God:"Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man (anthropos) approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by Him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know."

Charge #12

In Acts 2:36 Peter states, "Therefore let all the house of Israel know that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ." It is obvious here that Peter does not believe that Jesus was always Lord but only made so after His post-resurrection exaltation.

Charge #13

Christians often presume that since Scriptures call Jesus God he must therefore be Deity, while they ignore the fact that both Moses and others are called God also: " ... And you (Moses) shall be to him (Aaron) as God." Exodus 4:16 page 17

Charge #14

The official Christian understanding of the Trinity is that the three Persons of the Godhead are inseparable, forming one indivisible unity. Yet, two passages seem to suggest that the Father and Son were anything but inseparable:

Charge #15

According to James 1:13, God cannot be tempted by evil. Christ was tempted (Matthew 4:1), therefore he cannot be God.

Charge #16

The Greek term for seed is spermatose, i.e. sperm. This means that Paul believes Christ was conceived naturally, denying the virgin birth. Secondly, Paul states that Christ was declared to be God's son after the resurrection, which is a denial of Christ's eternal sonship.

Charge #17

In 1 Corinthians 8:6 Paul affirms that there is only one God, the Father. Paul clearly believes that Jesus is not God. page 26

Charge #18

Paul states that "for this reason I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." (Ephesians 3:14 NKJV) Paul affirms that we should worship the Father alone, as he clearly did. page 27

Charge #19

Jesus is viewed as a mediator between God and man: "For there is One God and one Mediator between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus." Paul clearly teaches that Christ is a man and not God. page 28

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A Christian Defense of the Gospel to the Muslims

By Sam Shamoun


Muslim Argument:

Christians believe that God is a Trinity. Yet, nowhere do we find the Trinity taught in the Bible. The clear biblical witness is that God is absolutely one, having no plurality (Cf.Deuteronomy 4:35, 39; 6:4; Psalm 86:10; Isaiah 43:10; 44:6, 8; 45:5-6, 18, 21-22; 46:9)

Muslim Argument:

The New Testament contradicts the Old Testament, since in the Old no mention is made of a plurality of Persons who are God.

Muslim Argument:

If the Old Testament does teach the plurality of God, then how is it that the Jews who have studied it for all these centuries never came to the conclusion that God is a Trinity?


Muslim Argument:

There is no clear biblical reference from the lips of Jesus claiming to be God. In fact, nowhere in the Bible does Jesus teach anyone to worship him. Instead he commands that one should worship God (Cf. Mat. 4:10).

Muslim Argument:

According to the Bible, Jesus cannot be the Messiah since Matthew's genealogy lists him as a descendant of cursed Jehoaichin.(Mat. 1:11-16) In Jeremiah 22:24-30, God says of Jehoiachin:

Muslim Argument:

If Matthew's genealogy is correct, then Jesus cannot be a legitimate King of Israel nor the Messiah of God.

Muslim Argument:

Jesus cannot be God since he made false predictions. In Matthew 10:23 Jesus says to his disciples, "I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through the cities of Israel before the Son of Man comes." The disciples went through the cities of Israel and Jesus still has not returned.

Muslim Argument:

According to Mark Jesus cursed a fig tree for not having figs on it, even though "it was not the season for figs" (Mark 11:12-14). If Jesus is God, did he not know that it wasn't season for figs, and if so why would he curse it?

Muslim Argument:

Jesus uses what seems to be derogatory language. In Matthew 7:6 Jesus calls unbelievers dogs and swine, and in Matthew 15:26 Jesus likens both the Canaanite woman and Gentiles to dogs.

Muslim Argument:

God is all-knowing. But according to the Bible, Jesus did not even know the day or hour of his second coming. (Cf. Mark 13:32)

Muslim Argument:

God is able to do all that he pleases. But according to John 5:19 Jesus could do nothing of himself.

Muslim Argument:

God cannot die. But according to Christians, Jesus died on the cross. If this is so, how can God die and who was running the universe when Jesus was dead?

Muslim Argument:

If Jesus is God, who was praying to in the Garden and while on the cross (Cf. Mat. 26:39, 27:45-46)? Was he praying to himself? Besides, how can God pray?

Muslim Argument:

According to Matthew 28:18, all authority was given to Jesus. If authority had to be given to Christ, that means that there is One greater than him who is doing the givin.

Muslim Argument:

In Mark 10:35-40, James, John and their mother requested that Jesus would grant the two disciples to sit on his right and left. Yet, Jesus replied that he could not grant such a request, since it had already been determined. How could Jesus be God if he was unable to even grant a request by his disciples?

Muslim Argument:

God cannot be tempted. (Cf. James 1:13) Yet, Jesus was tempted by the devil. (Cf. Mat. 4:1) Jesus, therefore, cannot be God.

Muslim Argument:

According to the Bible when a young man came to Jesus calling him good, Jesus responded, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone." (Mark 10:18) How can Jesus be God if he is not even as good as God?

Muslim Argument:

Christians often use Jesus' I AM statements in John, most notably John 8:58, as proof that Jesus identified himself as the I AM of Exodus 3:14. There, Yahweh tells Moses to tell Israel that his name is "`I AM WHO I AM'. He said further, `Thus you shall say to the Israelites, "I AM has sent me to you"'." NRSV

Muslim Argument:

Jesus commanded his disciples to baptize "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." (Cf. Mat. 28:19) Yet, the disciples baptized in Jesus' name instead. (Cf. Acts 2:38)

Muslim Argument:

According to Christians, Jesus is the Father's Son. Yet, according to both Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:35 Jesus was conceived supernaturally to the virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit. This makes the Holy Spirit Jesus' father.


Muslim Argument:

Jesus' death is a violation of the clear OT commands prohibiting human sacrifices. Since Jesus was also under the Law (Cf. Gal. 4:4), his death would be an express violation of the commands of God which did not allow for humans to be put to death, only animals.

Muslim Argument:

Why was it necessary for God to send his eternal Son to die for sinners. Couldn't God have simply forgiven sinners instead of having his Son murdered?

Muslim Argument:

"And they (Zachariah and Elizabeth) were righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless." Luke 1:6 All these verses affirm that there were many who were sinless like Christ, and did not need Christ to die for them.

Muslim Argument:

According to Jesus in Matthew 18:6, children are sinless:

Muslim Argument:

Salvation according to Jesus comes from observing the commandments

Muslim Argument:

Jesus taught, "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink." John 6:54-55 NIV page 27

Muslim Argument:

According to Christians, Adam's sin brought condemnation on all flesh. This necessitated a divine Redeemer to come down from heaven to save man. But according to Ezekiel 18:1-24 a person will not be held accountable for someone else's sins. Page 28

Muslim Argument:

According to Hosea 6:6, God does not desire sacrifices. He rather desires one to be merciful and obedient to him. This point is reiterated by Jesus in Matthew 9:13. page 29

Muslim Argument:

In order to refute the idea that Jesus died for sinners, Muslims often point to verses where Jesus is pictured as committing sins. Page 30

Muslim Argument:

John's baptism was for repentance of sins. (Cf. Acts 19:4) Jesus was baptized. (Cf. Mark 1:4) page 32.

Muslim Argument:

Christians believe that Isaiah 53 is an eighth century B.C. prophecy foretelling the death, burial and resurrection of Christ. In attempt to refute the prophetic significance of the passage, Muslim apologists present the following arguments: page 33

Muslim Argument:

In Isaiah 53:5 the Hebrew term min is more correctly translated as "from." Therefore, Isaiah was not saying that the servant was wounded for transgressions, but from transgressions. Page 36

Muslim Argument:

The term for death in Isaiah 53:9 is plural in Hebrew and should be "deaths." This indicates that Isaiah had national Israel in mind. Page 37

Muslim Argument:

Isaiah 53:10 speaks of the servant seeing "his seed." The term "seed" is always used to refer to physical offspring. (Cf. Gen. 12:7, 15:13, 46:6; Ex. 28:43) But Jesus had no children since he was never married. Page 38

Muslim Argument:

According to the Old Testament, the Mosaic Law is something good and holy. Believers are commanded to delight in the Law and meditate upon it. (Cf. Deut. 5:29; 2 Kings 17:37; Psalm 1:2; 119) page 39

Muslim Argument:

According to Paul the resurrection body is spiritual. (Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:44) Yet, in Luke 24:39 Jesus did not have a spiritual body, but a body of "flesh and bones." Furthermore, Paul indicates that "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God." (Cf. 1 Cor. 15:50) This proves that Jesus did not die and rise from the dead since he did not have a spiritual body. Page 39


Muslim Argument:

There are 66 books within the canon of the Protestant Bible. Yet the Catholic Bible contains 73. Either one has added or omitted 7 books from the Bible. Page 42

Muslim Argument:

There is no reference in the Bible itself where it indicates that the book canonized by the Jews and Christians would be called the Bible. The word "Bible" never appears in the Judeo-Christian Scriptures. This is a man-made title. Page 44

Muslim Argument:

Ezekiel 23:20-21 uses what seems to be pornographic language. God speaks of Judah and Samaria lusting for Egypt whose genitals is likened to donkeys, and whose emission is like horses. How can the Bible attribute such words to God? Page 45

Muslim Argument:

The Bible degrades women, blaming Eve for the fall. Furthermore, it commands women to remain silent in the churches and not to usurp authority over the man. Page 46

Muslim Argument:

Christians presume inspiration of all the books of the Bible. Yet, there are places where inspiration is seemingly denied. For instance, Luke affirms in Luke 1:1-4 that it "seemed good also to me to write an orderly account that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught." No mention of inspiration! Page 47

Muslim Argument:

According to 2 Samuel 24:1. God moved David to number the fighting men of Israel, whereas according to 1 Chronicles 21:1 it was Satan who moved David to do so. Page 48

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